Maria del Mar Arjona, 19, was stopped after the guards at the jail in Chetumal saw her acting nervously and struggling with the heavy suitcase on wheels.
They opened the bag and found her husband Edwin Valdemar Artiaga Perez inside – wearing only socks and pants.
The husband was returned to his cell after last week’s jailbreak attempt.
Ms Arjona had been at the prison in the eastern Quintana Roo state for a conjugal visit with her husband, and therefore had been allowed to take the suitcase inside, officials said.
She was only stopped as she attempted to leave through the main door of the building.
Her husband – who is reportedly serving a 20-year-old jail term for various unspecified crimes – was found curled up inside the bag.
Ms Arjona, who is pregnant, was also detained by the authorities, reports say.